A potentiometer or a redox indicator is usually used to determine the endpoint of the titration, as when one of the constituents is the oxidizing agent potassium dichromate. The color change of the solution from orange to green is not definite, therefore an indicator such as sodium diphenylamine is used. In this case, starch is used as an indicator; a blue starch-iodine complex is formed in the presence of excess iodine, signalling the endpoint. For instance, in permanganometry a slight persisting pink color signals the endpoint of the titration because of the color of the excess oxidizing agent potassium permanganate.

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To be useful in a titration, the complexation reaction must occur rapidly as compared with the rate of addition of the titrant. Complexes which are formed rapidly are called labile complexes and those which are formed slowly are called nonla-bile or inert complexes.

Generally, only titration reactions which form labile complexes are useful. Consider the simple complexation of copper II ion by the unidentate ligand NH3 in water. The stepwise formation constants of the amine complexes of copper II are rela- tively close together. This means that over a wide range of NH3 concentrations, there will exist at the same time, at least two normally more , copper II aminecomplexes in solution at significant concentrations relative to each other.

This isgenerally true of unidentate ligands and hence limits their use as titrants for the determination of metal ions save for a few specialized cases, which is beyond the scope of this module. A major requirement for titration is a single reaction that goes essentially to completion at the equivalence point. This requirement is generally not met by unidentate ligands because of the fact that their formation constants are not very high. Dissociation of Complexes A given complex behaves as a weak electrolyte and dissociates to a small degree.

The equilibrium constant for the dissociation of a complex is simply the inverse of its formation constant, Kform, and is known as the instability constant, Kins. Answer Application of Complex Equilibria in Complexation Titration: The concept behind formation of complexes can be used as stated earlier see section on importance of chelates , in quantitative analysis of either metal ions or other anions of interest.

An example to illustrate the use of complex titration exercise is in the determi- nation of cyanide present in a solution via the titration of cyanide with silver nitrate solution given below.

When a solution of silver nitrate is added to a solution containing cyanide ion alkali cyanide , a white precipitate is formed when the two ligands first comeinto contact with each another.

On stirring, the precipitate re-dissolves due to the formation of an alkali stable salt of silver-cyanide complex, i. The end point of the reaction is indicated by the formation of a permanent precipitate or turbidity. Such a titration experiment can be used to quantify the amount of cyanide present in a solution.

Here cyanide is an example of a complexone; another term for a complexing agent. Note that the formation of a single complex species in contrast to a stepwiseproduction of complex species simplifies complexation titration i. The chelate most commonly used for complexometric titrations is ethylenedia- mine tetraacetic acid EDTA ; an aminopolycarboxylic acid which is an excel- lent complexing agent.

These values suggest that the complexing agent behaves as a dicarboxylic acid with two strongly acidic groups and thatthere are two ammonium protons of which the first ionizes in the pH region ofabout 6.

The stability of such a complex is often dependent on a number of factors, that need due consi- deration as one investigates the application of EDTA titration experiments inquantification of metal ions in solution.

These factors affect the various multiple equilibria shown above, which in turn influences how complexometric titrationis carried out. The next section looks at the two important factors that are true for all complexometric titrations. So to have any properly defined equilibria,the pH of the solution mixture will have to be buffered. Thus, the act of lowering the pH of the solution will decrease the concentration of Y The larger the stability constant of the complex, the lesser the tendency of the metal hydroxide to form.

The relative proportions of the complexes will be dependent on the stability constants of the two types of metal- complexing agent complexes. EDTA titration has been traditionally used in quantitating calcium ions in water, in a process referred to as determining water hardness.

Water hardness is customarily referred to as concentration of calcium in the form of calcium carbonate. In this method, a colorimetric indicator, [these are intensely coloured substances in at least one form bound or unbound to the metal and do change colour when the metal-ion analyte binds with it], is used. Titration Curves In the former unit, we learnt that in the titration of a strong acid versus a strong base, a plot of pH against the volume of the solution of the strong base addedyields a point of inflexation at the equivalence point.

The general shapeof a titration curve obtained following the titration of mL of a 0. In this subsection, we shall look at the chemistry of EDTA titrations in general. Note that metal complexes of EBT are generally red in colour. Therefore, if a colour change is to be observed with EBT indicator, the pH of the solution must be between 7 and 11 so that the blue form of the indicator dominates when the titrant breaks up the red metal-EBT complex at the end point.

To avoid this problem of gradual change in colour, a small amount of EDTA:Mg is often added to the titration flask this does not affect the stoichiometry of thetitration reaction because the quantities of EDTA and Mg are equimolar becauseMgIn complex is sufficiently stable that it will not dissociate appreciably priorto attainement of the equivalence point.

Direct Titration In direct titration, the solution containing the metal ion to be determined is buf- fered to the desired pH and titrated directly with a standard EDTA solution. It may be necessary to prevent precipitation of the hydroxide of the metal ion or a basic salt by the addition of an auxillary complexing agent or sometimes calledmasking agent, since they form stable complexes with potential interference , such as tartarate or citrate.

At start i. At the equivalence point the magnitude of the concentration of the metal ion being determined decreases abruptly. This equivalence point is generally determined by the change in color of a metal indicator that responds to changes in pM. Calculate the hardness of the water sample as CaCO3 in mg L Both metal ions have the same stoichiometry with EDTA, hence the titration includes the sum of Mg and Ca ions in the water sample.

Therefore, the hardness of the water is What was the hardness in mg L-1 of CaCO3? Answer B. Back titration This is for the determination of metal ions that cannot be titrated directly with EDTA, say in alkaline solution e. In back titration, an excess known amount of a standard EDTA solution is added to the solution of the analyte. The resulting solution mixture is then buffered to the desired pH, and the excess EDTA titrated with a standard solution of a second metal ion.

The end point is then detected with the aid of an appropriate metal indicator that responds to the second metal ion introduced in the back titration.


Acid–base titration

Gardalkis Characteristics and industrial importance. A suitable indicator should be chosen, preferably one that will experience a change in colour an end point close to the equivalence point of the reaction. After the reaction is complete, the remaining titrant and product are quantified e. Atomic absorption spectrometer Flame emission spectrometer Gas chromatograph High-performance liquid chromatograph Infrared spectrometer Mass spectrometer Melting point apparatus Microscope Spectrometer Spectrophotometer. Some redox reactions may require heating the sample solution and titrating while the solution is still hot to increase the reaction rate. Alkalimetry is used in the determination of many different inorganic, organic and biological substances which have acid properties. In addition to the sample, an appropriate pH indicator is added to the titration chamber, reflecting the pH range of the equivalence point.


14.4: Complex ion Equilibria and Complexometric Titrations

Alkalimetry is the specialized analytic use of acid-base titration to determine the concentration of a basic synonymous to alkaline substance. Acidimetry, sometimes spelled acidometry, is the same concept of specialized analytic acid-base titration, but for an acidic substance. The conical flask contained solution that just reached the endpoint. A suitable pH indicator must be chosen in order to detect the end point of the titration. The color change or other effect should occur close to the equivalence point of the reaction so that the experimenter can accurately determine when that point is reached. When a weak acid reacts with a weak base, the equivalence point solution will be basic if the base is stronger and acidic if the acid is stronger.



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