The second urned grave no. SzymanskiWyszembork cf. Nunc de S uebis dicendum est. Ges iki, grav e no. MokslasVilnius85— Lietuvos archeologija5.

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Horses in Ethnoarchaeology and Folklore 7 Preface P r e fa c e I miss the horse I simply miss the horse, its intelligent and good eyes. I want something heavy to drag, or just — to graze together. But if we have a draught horse, we call it arklys, or an old useless horse or jade or nag, rip, screw, hack, knacker, weed, plug — kuinas. One uses the arklys, however, to plough. So, based on age-old traditions, it is better not to buy a piebald horse at the Lithuanian horse fair jomarkas even on a Thursday, a day that otherwise is a favourable one for market Greimas , p.

These first few paragraphs of the preface are not allotted for an analysis of the horse in Lithuanian ethnological material. Rather, they are meant to intrigue the reader, to demonstrate the significance of the horse in Balt lands and Lithuania since ancient times.

Another goal of the conference organizers was to take a look at the significance of the horse in the everyday life, military, burial customs, offerings, worldview, and artistic expressions in various regions of Europe. By their themes, the articles can be organized into eight chapters.

Unfortunately, the military and the horse were inseparable in the history of humanity; this is illustrated by the example of the Kalkriese battlefield that continues to be investigated, as well as the operations of the Slavic cavalry during the Gothic war in Italy Susanne Wilbers-Rost and Achim Rost; Michel Kazanski. Moreover, apart from being a status marker with strong ritual connotations, it might be suggested that the horse in prehistory was a liminal agent between sea and land Christer Westerdahl.

Vilnius—Chicago: Mokslas. Leksika, I, Vilnius: Mokslas, It would suggest the earliest horse domestication known today. Discovered in during a systematic survey carried on by Polish-Uzbek Archaeological Expedition, it is situated some km North of Bukhara city, in the south-eastern part of a steppe-desert area, called the Kyzyl-kums Fig.

A neolithic camp covers a fragment of a relatively plain promontory, closed from the East by a limestone island hill, and from the remaining three sides — by the steep gorges Szymczak, Khudzhanazarov , pp. BP, and a middle neolith one, 14C dated to ca — cal. Almost one and a half millennium lasting settlement gap between those two phases, according to our data, was caused by the deluging of the area of the camp by raising waters of an adjacent great water reservoir, called by us the Io Sea Szymczak, Khudzhanazarov Additionally, we found it possible to divide an early neolithic phase into three sub-phases, marked starting from the youngest as: a — ca — cal.

BP, b — ca — cal. BP, and c — ca — cal. BP Szymczak et al. To the right: a copy of an old Persian miniature showing a white horse in Central Asian steppe painted by Toshev Davlat from Bukhara, Among the bone and tooth fragments, the horse remains played a very important role. Already in the earliest horizons a share of the pieces identified as belonging to the Equidae family reached In comparison with other Eurasian Neolithic sites such numbers are rather unique.

Could it evidence, or suggest at least, an earliest domestication of horse? Let us try to have a closer look on this problem. Some remarks on horse domestication and its indicators A general process of horse domestication is not recognized in detail yet. If we set the basic questions: what progenitor, where, and when was domesticated, it would appear that we are only able to give some suggestions, but not the valid answers.

It seems that relatively the least complicated is to point out the progenitor, which was probably a wild horse, Equus ferus, occurring in the Early Holocene over the vast territories of Europe and Asia from Portugal, all the way through France, Middle and Eastern Europe, Central Asia, down to western China Benecke On such a large area it could develop various local forms, among which described are two main subspecies: tarpan, and Przewalski horse.

In theory both those subspecies could be considered as the progenitors of the contemporary domesticated horses, which domestication most probably had a polytopic character. Polytopy concerns all the animals of a wide range of occurrence, because their domestication could be realized by different human groups independ- I F rom H orse D omestica tion to I mages of the H orse and H orsemen Ta b l e I.

Nevertheless, it seem unlikely that Przewalski horse was a direct progenitor of domesticated horse for one fundamental reason — it has a different number of chromosomes.

A process of domestication could start nearly everywhere, where only tarpan occurred — in Europe, as well as in western Asia. The most difficult quest would be to indicate where and when exactly that process took place for the earliest. Usually a chronology of domestication of a certain species is being set up on the bases of the dates obtained for the animal remains on which the morphological changes characteristic of domestication could be observed.

Unfortunately, in case of horse such changes could not be easily demonstrated, most probably because for a very long time the ways of life of wild and domesticated horse were quite similar Fig. In a situation when we do not have at our disposal the unequivocal morphological determinants, we should seek for other features, which could at least suggest domestication.

Today we accept several such features. One of them is an appearance in archaeological material of the artifacts directly indicating the use of horse, e. In Poland many of such burials are found in the late Neolithic sites attributed to Globular Amphorae and Corded Ware cultures Kaczorowska However, we should not forget that in Polish Neolithic we have numerous intentional burials of wild animals as well.

Benecke observed the significant increase of variability of longitude of the third phalang of the Bronze and Iron Age horses in relation to the Early Holocene individuals. Such a phenomenon is confirmed in numerous bone collections from Spain, France, Germany, Poland, Ukraine, and western Asia.

At last, an often used indicator for horse domestication is an increase of share of its bone remains in osteological material. This feature seems to be quite reliable, because it shows the growth of interest in a certain species among the prehistoric peoples. Even if it does not prove that such a species was fully domesticated, it is more than probable that at least it could be already tamed.

One should only remember that in case of horse, its share should be necessarily confronted with a share of the remains of the beasts of chase, in order to exclude an intensive wild horse hunting.

The similar premises are being used to confirm not only horse domestication, but also domestication of the other species which domesticated forms do not show the univocal morphological features, e. A group of features mentioned above was used by Benecke , who came to a conclusion that the earliest horse domestication could take place in an environment of the Neolithic Tripole culture on Dniepr River, Ukraine.

In an osteological material from that region, dated for the first half of the sixth millennium BC, a large number of horse remains of highly differentiated sizes was described, together with a presence of horse, and other domesticated animal bones, in human burials.

Zhuravlev , who is of an opinion that horse domestication started in another Ukrainian Neolithic unit — the BugDniestr culture, mentions a similar possible date: the fourth millennium BC. Additionally, the same author records that by that time the differentiation of the sizes of horses visibly increased, which is demonstrated on an example of their phalangs. In relation to southwestern Europe, Benecke , citing H. Uerpman, suggests that local horse domestication could occur in the first half of the third millennium BC, among the tribes representing the late Neolithic Globular Amphorae culture.

Also in other European animal bone collections dated for the third millennium BC, Benecke himself noted a conspicuous increase of the horse remains.

Even though on certain areas their shares were not identical, a general tendency could be clearly observed in many series from Slovakia, Germany, Central Poland, and Hungary.

In the latter country, a share of horse remains was the highest and reached Horse domestication in Polish Neolithic Quite interesting is a position of horse in Polish Neolithic, where its general representation among the remains of domesticated animals is rather low Laprus-Madej In the Banded Pottery culture the horse remains Recapitulating the remarks made above, we may accept that a process of horse domestication in the Polish Neolithic is marked by a start of decreasing of the dimensions of the discussed animals, and of using them as sacrificial beasts.

On the other hand, the low shares of horse remains, in relation to the shares of the remains of other positively domesticated species would suggest that so early start of larger scale horse domestication is doubtful, although we could point out the single sites with quite high shares of horse remains. It all could indicate a possibility of rather local, tentative domestication. Thus, it seems that among the non morphological features the best indicator is a general considerable increase of horse remains in the osteological assemblages, especially when at the same time the shares of bone remains of wild animals stay at the same, relatively low level.

In such a case, even if we cannot prove beyond doubt horse breeding, we should seriously take into account at least a possibility of large scale taming which always, sooner or later, ends up as domestication. In case of the nomads, the horses were most probably chiefly used as a mean of locomotion and transport, so their life could be not that strictly controlled. A period of adaptation of such animals could last for a very long time some generations , but even in that case more probable was a husbandry rather than a natural selection.

Such a selection generally leads to the formation of the morphological types useful for riding, and easily standing the particular ecological conditions. BP a share of the identified as horse family remains reaches BP it increases even to The remaining finds in majority belong to domesticated cattle and camel. Wild animals are represented only by a few species occurring in a scarce number of bone fragments.

With their economy based on cattle breeding, they could ride horses and camels, and use them as a mean of transport. Such a picture is well supplemented by a presence of domesticated dog Table 1. The more extensive those needs grew, the more limited was an independence of such a species. Consequently, a situation like that created the unavoidable conditions for natural, as well as for husbandry selection. Only rarely, but in various forms, the horses occur in burials: as the complete, individual sepulchers, as well as added to human graves Kaczorowska As the detail analysis showed, the dimensions of the Neolithic horse long bones are slightly smaller in average than the Paleolithic and Mesolithic ones.

It is believed that in course of domestication, increasing, as well as decreasing of the dimensions of horse skeleton is possible, but once such a process starts, it is always unidirectional and continuous. Its direction depends on a way a species was exploited, and on a way it was bred.

The size increasing is usually connected with breeding selection Lasota-Moskalewska BP , horse started to be supplanted by camel, which could mark a possible change in a way of locomotion. In the youngest layer — cal. BP , after a long settlement gap, camel took a leading role It may seem that by that time the whole type of the Neolithic economy had changed, possibly in a direction of an exclusive camel breeding. A height in withers of those animals, calculated on a base of the measurements of their long bones, reached — cm, which is characteristic of medium tall cattle.

The possible morphological consequences of that process are additionally indicated by the metrical features of the bones. Unfortunately, the studied material was in such a poor state of preservation that we have managed to measure only one radius bone. Its length would indicate that an individual reached cm in withers, which is considerably more than the same measurement for wild horses.

An average height of Przewalski horse is cm, and of tarpan — cm, with a maximum of a whole range never exceeding cm. Of course, basing on one individual represented by a single long bone we are not able to describe a whole population, but at least we can state that this particular horse was most probably domesticated and bred since long ago.

It could represent an already graded up race which differed from the wild forms not only in height, but also in shape. The graded up races usually have longer and more slender limbs, longer necks, relatively smaller heads, and bent up bellies.

The similar features could be observed e. Among others, the horses of such silhouettes are also represented on the prehistoric petroglyphs from Uzbekistan LasotaMoskalewska, Hudjanazarov It could strongly suggest an existence of an early graded up race or races developed locally on a territory of Central Asia.

The most ancient, and existing till today, race coming from that area is the Akhaltekin race Plate I. The heights in withers of the contemporary Akhaltekins close in a range of — cm.



Moogugami Archaeologia Baltica7. A long them ther e we re a bit archaeoogia big in a narrow, tightand elonga ted pit. Th e czewo Cu lture Fig. Arch aeol og ia Lituana, I, Presumably, it most probably its later segment Nowakowskimight have been a cemetery with cremation graves and p. Therefore, the possibility that a certain number and two pairs of buckles, a bigger and a smaller one, of horse graves in the Paprotki Kolonia cemetery with a rectangular, axised frame whose galtica were are linked to the Olsztyn Group cannot be ruled out slightly rounded.


Archaeologia Baltica 11

Arajas Archaeologia Baltica7. MokslasVilnius85— Fundarchiv, AG 10 lay next to the left side. A lt- Preufien5, On bit with rings at archxeologia ends, and an iron buckle of type the basis baptica its photograph Fig. Stockholm Studies in Archaeology2. B uun ENE, ed.


Bazilkree I; Racz ki, grave no. The Transition tenbestattung bei den heidnischen Preussen. Raw materials and manufacturing technology. Bronze Age double buttons in Estonia. Furthermore, there are no grounds to establish graphic sequences. I3; La Baumep. Radiocarbon chronology of the Zvejnieki burials.



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