He was a conservative who wrote many popular scores scattered throughout the various genres: the Piano Concerto No. While he remained a composer closely tied to tradition and traditional forms in his later years, he did develop a more arid style, less colorful and, in the end, less appealing. He was also a poet and playwright of some distinction. He was one of the most precocious musicians ever, beginning piano lessons with his aunt at two-and-a-half and composing his first work at three. At age seven he studied composition with Pierre Maledin.
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The system used above is standard in the orchestra music field. The first set of numbers before the dash represent the Woodwinds.
The set of numbers after the dash represent the Brass. Percussion is abbreviated following the brass. Strings are represented with a series of five digits representing the quantity of each part first violin, second violin, viola, cello, bass. Instruments shown in parenthesis are optional and may be omitted. Example 1 - Beethoven: [2,2,2,,2,0,0, tymp, ] The Beethoven example is typical of much Classical and early Romantic fare. In this case, the winds are all doubled 2 flutes, 2 oboes, 2 clarinets and 2 bassoons , and there are two each horns and trumpets.
There is no low brass. There is tympani. Strings are a standard configuration 4 first violin, 4 second violin, 3 viola, 2 cello, 2 bass. Sometimes strings are simply listed as "str," which means strings. Note the inclusion of the saxes after bassoon for this band work. Note also that the separate euphonium part is attached to trombone with a plus sign.
For orchestral music, saxes are at the end see Saxophones below. Multiples, if any, are not shown in this system. The numbers represent only distinct parts, not the number of copies of a part. Example 3 - MacKenzie: a fictional work, by the way. Note: This system lists Horn before Trumpet. This is standard orchestral nomenclature. Also, it should be noted that Euphonium can be doubled by either Trombone or Tuba. Typically, orchestra scores have the tuba linked to euphonium, but it does happen where Trombone is the principal instead.
Saxophones, when included in orchestral music they rarely are will be shown in the "other instrument" location after strings and before the soloist, if any.
Letters that are duplicated as in A in this example indicate multiple parts.
Cavatine, Op.144 (Saint-Saëns, Camille)
Before he was three years old he displayed perfect pitch and enjoyed picking out tunes on the piano. The music critic Harold C. From the latter he acquired a lifelong love of the music of Bach , which was then little known in France. In addition to his musical prowess, he distinguished himself in the study of French literature, Latin and Greek, divinity, and mathematics. His interests included philosophy, archaeology and astronomy, of which, particularly the last, he remained a talented amateur in later life. The director, Daniel Auber , had succeeded Luigi Cherubini in , and brought a more relaxed regime than that of his martinet predecessor, though the curriculum remained conservative.
List of compositions by Camille Saint-Saëns