CHOWNING FM PDF

Photo courtesy Histeria. Although its name is reasonably well known in the UK, I suspect that few people on this side of the pond know precisely what the Berklee College of Music is, or what it does. Founded in , Berklee was the first school in the USA to teach the popular music of the day jazz and, in , was perhaps the first to recognise the electric guitar as a serious instrument. No doubt an affront to the conservatives of the music world, the college also has two record labels that promote its rock, pop and jazz musicians, runs a major in music therapy, and includes hip-hop within its curriculum.

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History[ edit ] By the midth century, frequency modulation FM , a means of carrying sound, had been understood for decades and was being used to broadcast radio transmissions. Patent 4,, [7] is actually based on phase modulation , but the results end up being equivalent mathematically as both are essentially a special case of QAM.

Several other models by Yamaha provided variations and evolutions of FM synthesis during that decade. Casio developed a related form of synthesis called phase distortion synthesis , used in its CZ range of synthesizers. It had a similar but slightly differently derived sound quality to the DX series.

His , and dual oscillator modules had a specific FM control voltage input, [11] and the model Music Easel had a modulation oscillator hard-wired to allow FM as well as AM of the primary oscillator. With the expiration of the Stanford University FM patent in , digital FM synthesis can now be implemented freely by other manufacturers. The degree of complexity of the FM in such hardware synths may vary from simple 2-operator FM, to the highly flexible 6-operator engines of the Korg Kronos and Alesis Fusion , to creation of FM in extensively modular engines such as those in the latest synthesisers by Kurzweil Music Systems.

Various other synthesizers offer limited FM abilities to supplement their main engines. This iteration of FM is called FM-X, and features 8 operators; each operator has a choice of several basic wave forms, but each wave form has several parameters to adjust its spectrum.

FM-X uses 8 operators. The list of selectable wave forms includes sine waves, the All1 and All2 wave forms, the Odd1 and Odd2 wave forms, and the Res1 and Res2 wave forms. The sine wave selection works the same as the DX7 wave forms. The All1 and All2 wave forms are a saw-tooth wave form. The Odd1 and Odd2 wave forms are pulse or square waves.

These two types of wave forms can be used to model the basic harmonic peaks in the bottom of the harmonic spectrum of most instruments. The Res1 and Res2 wave forms move the spectral peak to a specific harmonic and can be used to model either triangular or rounded groups of harmonics further up in the spectrum of an instrument.

Combining an All1 or Odd1 wave form with multiple Res1 or Res2 wave forms and adjusting their amplitudes can model the harmonic spectrum of an instrument or sound. The FS1R had 16 operators, 8 standard FM operators and 8 additional operators that used a noise source rather than an oscillator as its sound source. By adding in tuneable noise sources the FS1R could model the sounds produced in the human voice and in a wind instrument, along with making percussion instrument sounds.

The FS1R also contained an additional wave form called the Formant wave form. Formants can be used to model resonating body instrument sounds like the cello, violin, acoustic guitar, bassoon, English horn, or human voice. Formants can even be found in the harmonic spectrum of several brass instruments.

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CHOWNING FM PDF

History[ edit ] By the midth century, frequency modulation FM , a means of carrying sound, had been understood for decades and was being used to broadcast radio transmissions. Patent 4,, [7] is actually based on phase modulation , but the results end up being equivalent mathematically as both are essentially a special case of QAM. Several other models by Yamaha provided variations and evolutions of FM synthesis during that decade. Casio developed a related form of synthesis called phase distortion synthesis , used in its CZ range of synthesizers. It had a similar but slightly differently derived sound quality to the DX series. His , and dual oscillator modules had a specific FM control voltage input, [11] and the model Music Easel had a modulation oscillator hard-wired to allow FM as well as AM of the primary oscillator.

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John Chowning

Goll These techniques are the subject of this module. The Simulation of Moving Sound Sources. Physical musical instruments produce audio spectra that evolve with time. Previous post Love chowjing electronic music, more than ever. The prototype waveforms are normalized in both dimensions, i.

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