CIVILISATION BABYLONIENNE PDF

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The Kassites, like the Amorite rulers who had preceded them, were not originally native to Mesopotamia. Rather, they had first appeared in the Zagros Mountains of what is today northwestern Iran. The ethnic affiliation of the Kassites is unclear. However, their language was not Semitic or Indo-European , and is thought to have been either a language isolate or possibly related to the Hurro-Urartian language family of Anatolia, [12] although the evidence for its genetic affiliation is meager due to the scarcity of extant texts.

However, several Kassite leaders may have borne Indo-European names , and they may have had an Indo-European elite similar to the Mitanni elite that later ruled over the Hurrians of central and eastern Anatolia. This new foreign dominion offers a striking analogy to the roughly contemporary rule of the Hyksos in ancient Egypt. Most divine attributes ascribed to the Amorite kings of Babylonia disappeared at this time; the title "god" was never given to a Kassite sovereign.

However, Babylon continued to be the capital of the kingdom and one of the holy cities of western Asia, where the priests of the ancient Mesopotamian religion were all-powerful, and the only place where the right to inheritance of the short lived old Babylonian empire could be conferred. It is not clear precisely when Kassite rule of Babylon began, but the Indo-European Hittites from Anatolia did not remain in Babylonia for long after the sacking of the city, and it is likely the Kassites moved in soon afterwards.

Agum II took the throne for the Kassites in BC, and ruled a state that extended from Iran to the middle Euphrates; The new king retained peaceful relations with Erishum III , the native Mesopotamian king of Assyria, but successfully went to war with the Hittite Empire , and twenty-four years after, the Hittites took the sacred statue of Marduk , he recovered it and declared the god equal to the Kassite deity Shuqamuna. Map of Mesopotamia c.

The Sealand Dynasty of southern Mesopotamia remained independent of Babylonia and in native Akkadian-speaking hands. However, Ulamburiash managed to attack it and conquered parts of the land from Ea-gamil, a king with a distinctly Sumerian name, around BC, whereupon Ea-Gamil fled to his allies in Elam. The Sealand Dynasty region still remained independent however, and the Kassite king seems to have been unable to finally conquer it.

Ulamburiash began making treaties with ancient Egypt , which then was ruling southern Canaan , and Assyria to the north. Karaindash built a bas-relief temple in Uruk and Kurigalzu I — BC built a new capital Dur-Kurigalzu named after himself, transferring administrative rule from Babylon.

Both of these kings continued to struggle unsuccessfully against the Sealand Dynasty. Agum III also campaigned against the Sealand Dynasty, finally wholly conquering the far south of Mesopotamia for Babylon, destroying its capital Dur-Enlil in the process.

From there Agum III extended farther south still, invading what was many centuries later to be called the Arabian Peninsula or Arabia , and conquering the pre-Arab state of Dilmun in modern Bahrain. He then had to contend with the Suteans , ancient Semitic-speaking peoples from the southeastern Levant who invaded Babylonia and sacked Uruk.

He went on to conquer the eastern lands of Elam. This took his army to the Elamite capital, the city of Susa, which was sacked. After this a puppet ruler was placed on the Elamite throne, subject to Babylonia. Kurigalzu I maintained friendly relations with Assyria, Egypt and the Hittites throughout his reign. Kadashman-Enlil I — BC succeeded him, and continued his diplomatic policies. Burna-Buriash II ascended to the throne in BC, he retained friendly relations with Egypt, but the resurgent Middle Assyrian Empire — BC to the north was now encroaching into northern Babylonia, and as a symbol of peace, the Babylonian king took the daughter of the powerful Assyrian king Ashur-uballit I in marriage.

He also maintained friendly relations with Suppiluliuma I , ruler of the Hittite Empire. After some impressive initial successes he was ultimately defeated, and lost yet more territory to Assyria. Babylon did not begin to recover until late in the reign of Adad-shuma-usur — BC , as he too remained a vassal of Assyria until BC. However, he was able to prevent the Assyrian king Enlil-kudurri-usur from retaking Babylonia, which, apart from its northern reaches, had mostly shrugged off Assyrian domination during a short period of civil war in the Assyrian empire, in the years after the death of Tukulti-Ninurta.

Despite not being able to regain northern Babylonia from Assyria, no further territory was lost, Elam did not threaten, and the Late Bronze Age collapse now affecting the Levant, Canaan , Egypt , the Caucasus , Anatolia, Mediterranean , North Africa , northern Iran and Balkans seemed initially to have little impact on Babylonia or indeed Assyria and Elam. The long reigning Assyrian king Ashur-dan I — BC resumed expansionist policies and conquered further parts of northern Babylonia from both kings, and the Elamite ruler Shutruk-Nakhunte eventually conquered most of eastern Babylonia.

Enlil-nadin-ahhe — BC was finally overthrown and the Kassite dynasty ended after Ashur-dan I conquered yet more of northern and central Babylonia, and the equally powerful Shutruk-Nahhunte pushed deep into the heart of Babylonia itself, sacking the city and slaying the king. Poetical works have been found lamenting this disaster.

Despite the loss of territory, general military weakness, and evident reduction in literacy and culture, the Kassite dynasty was the longest-lived dynasty of Babylon, lasting until BC, when Babylon was conquered by Shutruk-Nakhunte of Elam, and reconquered a few years later by the Nebuchadnezzar I , part of the larger Late Bronze Age collapse.

His dynasty was to remain in power for some years. The new king successfully drove out the Elamites and prevented any possible Kassite revival. Later in his reign he went to war with Assyria, and had some initial success, briefly capturing the south Assyrian city of Ekallatum before ultimately suffering defeat at the hands of Ashur-Dan I.

Itti-Marduk-balatu succeeded his father in BC, and successfully repelled Elamite attacks on Babylonia during his 8-year reign. He too made attempts to attack Assyria, but also met with failure at the hands of the still reigning Ashur-Dan I. Ninurta-nadin-shumi took the throne in BC, and also attempted an invasion of Assyria, his armies seem to have skirted through eastern Aramea modern Syria and then made an attempt to attack the Assyrian city of Arbela modern Erbil from the west.

However this bold move met with defeat at the hands of Ashur-resh-ishi I who then forced a treaty in his favour upon the Babylonian king.

Nebuchadnezzar I — BC was the most famous ruler of this dynasty. He fought and defeated the Elamites and drove them from Babylonian territory, invading Elam itself, sacking the Elamite capital Susa, and recovering the sacred statue of Marduk that had been carried off from Babylon during the fall of the Kassites.

Shortly afterwards, the king of Elam was assassinated and his kingdom disintegrated into civil war. However, Nebuchadnezzar failed to extend Babylonian territory further, being defeated a number of times by Ashur-resh-ishi I — BC , king of the Middle Assyrian Empire , for control of formerly Hittite-controlled territories in Aram and Anatolia. The Hittite Empire of the northern and western Levant and eastern Anatolia had been largely annexed by the Middle Assyrian Empire, and its heartland finally overrun by invading Phrygians from the Balkans.

Nebuchadnezzar was succeeded by his two sons, firstly Enlil-nadin-apli — , who lost territory to Assyria. The second of them, Marduk-nadin-ahhe — BC also went to war with Assyria.

Some initial success in these conflicts gave way to a catastrophic defeat at the hands of the powerful Assyrian king Tiglath-Pileser I — BC , who annexed huge swathes of Babylonian territory, thus further expanding the Assyrian Empire. Following this a terrible famine gripped Babylon, inviting attacks and migrations from the northwest Semitic tribes of Aramaeans and Suteans from the Levant. Assyrian domination continued until c.

After BC the Middle Assyrian Empire descended into a period of civil war, followed by constant warfare with the Arameans , Phrygians , Neo-Hittite states and Hurrians, allowing Babylonia to once more largely free itself from the Assyrian yoke for a few decades.

However East Semitic-speaking Babylonia soon began to suffer further repeated incursions from West Semitic nomadic peoples migrating from the Levant during the Bronze Age collapse , and during the 11th century BC large swathes of the Babylonian countryside was appropriated and occupied by these newly arrived Arameans and Suteans.

Arameans settled much of the countryside in eastern and central Babylonia and the Suteans in the western deserts, with the weak Babylonian kings being unable to stem these migrations. Period of Chaos, — BC[ edit ] The ruling Babylonian dynasty of Nabu-shum-libur was deposed by marauding Arameans in BC, and the heart of Babylonia, including the capital city itself descended into anarchic state, and no king was to rule Babylon for over 20 years.

However, in southern Mesopotamia a region corresponding with the old Dynasty of the Sealand , Dynasty V — BC arose, this was ruled by Simbar-shipak , leader of a Kassite clan, and was in effect a separate state from Babylon.

The state of anarchy allowed the Assyrian ruler Ashur-nirari IV — BC the opportunity to attack Babylonia in BC, and he invaded and captured the Babylonian city of Atlila and some northern regions for Assyria. However, this dynasty too fell, when the Arameans once more ravaged Babylon. Babylonia remained weak during this period, with whole areas of Babylonia now under firm Aramean and Sutean control. Babylonian rulers were often forced to bow to pressure from Assyria and Elam, both of which had appropriated Babylonian territory.

Assyrian rule, — BC[ edit ] Babylonia remained in a state of chaos as the 10th century BC drew to a close. A further migration of nomads from the Levant occurred in the early 9th century BC with the arrival of the Chaldeans , another nomadic northwest Semitic people described in Assyrian annals as the "Kaldu".

The Chaldeans settled in the far southeast of Babylonia, joining the already long extant Arameans and Suteans. By BC the migrant Chaldeans had established their own land in the extreme south east of Mesopotamia. He made further gains over Babylonia under Nabu-shuma-ukin I later in his reign. However he too was subjugated by Adad-Nirari II. Babylonia briefly fell to another foreign ruler when Marduk-apla-usur ascended the throne in BC, taking advantage of a period of civil war in Assyria.

He was a member of the Chaldean tribe who had a century or so earlier settled in a small region in the far south eastern corner of Mesopotamia, bordering the Persian Gulf and south western Elam. However he was allowed to remain on the throne, and successfully stabilised the part of Babylonia he controlled.

Babylonia appears to have been in a state of chaos during this time, with the north occupied by Assyria, its throne occupied by foreign Chaldeans, and civil unrest prominent throughout the land. Babylon was invaded and sacked and Nabonassar reduced to vassalage. His successors Nabu-nadin-zeri , Nabu-suma-ukin II and Nabu-mukin-zeri were also in servitude to Tiglath-Pileser III, until in BC the Assyrian king decided to rule Babylon directly as its king instead of allowing Babylonian kings to remain as vassals of Assyria as his predecessors had done for two hundred years.

It was during this period that Eastern Aramaic was introduced by the Assyrians as the lingua franca.

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Edit The Babylonian Empire was, rather than a new idea, a reinvigoration of the old Sumerian Empire of the city of Ur, which had also occupied the Fertile Crescent in what is today Southern Iraq. Babylonia was formed from a collection of roughly a dozen city-states and was named for its capital city of Babylon. Pre-empire, the city of Babylon itself was in existence since at least the 24th century BC. Terrain and Climate Edit Babylon was located in the Fertile Crescent, the incredibly fecund region around the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers, extending west to the Mediterranean and down through modern Israel. The Fertile Crescent not only benefits from the rich soil and irrigation provided by the two ancient rivers, but it also lies at the crossroads of three major landmasses: Africa, Asia, and Europe, meaning it has insects, plants and animals from all three sources.

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