Sono poi da valutare i diversi termini in cui oggi, a differenza da allora, si pone il problema dello sviluppo. La pubblicazione della Populorum progressio avvenne immediatamente dopo la conclusione del Concilio Ecumenico Vaticano II. La stessa Enciclica segnala, nei primi paragrafi, il suo intimo rapporto con il Concilio [ 14 ]. Senza la prospettiva di una vita eterna, il progresso umano in questo mondo rimane privo di respiro. Non ci sono due tipologie di dottrina sociale, una preconciliare e una postconciliare, diverse tra loro, ma un unico insegnamento, coerente e nello stesso tempo sempre nuovo [ 20 ].
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The encyclical is divided into six chapters, along with an introduction and conclusion. Introduction The encyclical begins with a discussion of how charity and truth are fundamental parts of our development, both as individuals and for humanity as a whole. Love charity  is described as an extraordinary force motivating people to strive for the common good: "The more we strive to secure a common good corresponding to the real needs of our neighbours, the more effectively we love them.
Without truth, love can become an "empty shell" to be filled with emotional influences which in the worst case can result in love turning into its opposite. Similarly, social action without truth can end up "serving private interests and the logic of power". Another risk for the individual without truth is to fall prey to an excessively sceptical and empirical view of life.
He says the Christian is called on to engage politically for the benefit of other people in so far as he or she is able, and equally to love and help their neighbours on an individual level.
Benedict recounts how the earlier encyclical taught that institutions designed to hasten social development are not by themselves sufficient to ensure good outcomes. He reminds us that Paul VI advised the chief causes of enduring poverty are not material in nature, but lie in failures of the will and "the lack of brotherhood among individuals and peoples". He asserts that people working for the benefit of others need their own individual sense of vocation, which is derived in part from the Bible and the life of Christ.
The holy father introduces a theme concerning the importance in tackling hunger which reoccurs later in the work, using a quote from Populorum progressio: "the peoples in hunger are making a dramatic appeal to the peoples blessed with abundance". Chapter 2: human development in our time The Pope describes globalisation as the main feature of the current age. While acknowledging the great benefits delivered, including the emergence from underdevelopment of whole regions and nations, the Pope warns globalisation has already created many new problems and that without the influence of charity and truth, it could cause "unprecedented damage and create new divisions within the human family".
Benedict warns of dangers arising from unbalanced growth and from those pursuing profit purely for its own sake, without seeing profit as a means to do good. He discusses increasing inequality, including new groups of poor emerging even in rich nations. The pope says globalisation has in part given rise to damaging cultural eclecticism and levelling. Addressing political leaders, Benedict says that "The primary capital to be safeguarded is man" and suggests that reducing prolonged unemployment should be a high priority as it causes "great psychological and spiritual suffering.
The Pope considers a number of trends harmful to development: the prevalence of corruption in both poor and rich countries, the existence of harmful speculative capital flows, the tendency for development aid to be "diverted from it proper ends due to irresponsible actions", the "unregulated exploitation of the earths resources", and "on the part of rich countries there is excessive zeal for protecting knowledge through an unduly rigid assertion of the right to intellectual property, especially in the field of health care.
He emphasises that successfully resolving the various global challenges will need Love as well as knowledge: "the individual who is animated by true charity labours skilfully to discover the causes of misery, to find the means to combat it, to overcome it resolutely".
Benedict states civil society is the most natural setting for gratuitousness, but that gratuity is also needed in the operations of the State and the Market. The Pope states there is both a moral and economic case to conclude that "in commercial relationships the principles of gratuitousness and the logic of gift as an expression of gratuitousness can and must find their place within normal economic activity". He argues that giving fosters a sense of justice, responsibly and sense of the common good amongst different economic actors.
The Pope emphasises the call in Populorum progression for the creation of a market model where "all will be able to give and receive". He states everyone, including business managers and investors, should base their decision partly on an awareness of how their actions will effect progress towards global solidarity.
Chapter 4: the development of people, rights and duties, the environment. Here the Pope dwells at length on the concept that rights must be linked to duties. This can lead to the whole notion of rights being weakened and even core rights being violated.
The Pope turns to duties of governments, which should strive to look after the deep moral needs of their citizens and to promote ethical economic systems where actors look to maximise not just profits but also the common good.
The last part of the chapter is about the duty to protect the environment, though the Pope also warns that nature should not be regarded as more important than man. He regrets the way "some states, power groups and companies hoard non—renewable energy resources" which he says "represents a grave obstacle to development in poor countries". Benedict notes the importance for developed countries to take the lead in reducing their own environmental impact, which may involve in the adoption of new, more environmentally friendly life styles for their populations.
Chapter 5: the cooperation of the human family Hard copies of the encyclical have been published by Ignatius Press. In this chapter, Benedict discusses the importance for individuals to live in communion with each other. He states "the development of peoples depend above all on a recognition that the human race is a single family".
The Pope suggests isolation is one of the causes of various forms of poverty, including self inflicted isolation where the individual elects to withdraw from society.
Solidarity and fraternity are antidotes to isolation, and also essential for effective development. The Pope suggests that in addition to solidarity, attention needs to be paid to the principle of subsidiarity — "the most effective antidote against any form of all-encompassing welfare state. He says religion must play a part in political discussion, so there can be a fruitful dialogue between faith and reason.
The Pope cautions against secularism and fundamentalism, both of which make such dialogue difficult. Moving on to economic aid from developed to less developed states, Benedict states that the preeminent sort of help needed is increased access to the markets of developed countries.
He also says developed countries should allocate an increased proportion of their budgets to foreign aid. There is a discussion concerning an ethical response to international tourism and to the "epoch making" phenomena of migration — Benedict reminds us that every migrant is a person possessing inalienable rights "that must be respected by everyone and in every circumstance.
He suggests increased "regulation of the financial sector" is needed to safeguard vulnerable parties. The chapter ends with a call for an establishment of an effective global authority "to manage the global economy; to revive economies hit by the crisis; to avoid any deterioration of the present crisis and the greater imbalances that would result. Chapter 6: the development of peoples and technology The Pope praises the benefits of technology but warns that a purely technocrat mindset where decisions are made only on grounds of efficiency will not deliver true development.
Technical decisions must not be divorced from ethics. Benedict discusses bioethics and suggests that practices such as abortion, eugenics and euthanasia are morally hazardous and that accepting them can lead to greater tolerance for various forms of moral degradation.
Benedict says there is something miraculous in every act of knowledge. Love which is so essential to human development can not be fully appreciated from a materialistic perspective, but only with awareness of the spiritual dimension.
Conclusion The Pope reiterates his belief that charity and truth are essential for integral human development, both for the individual and for peoples.
The conclusion ends with a prayer to the Virgin Mary to intercede with God that all may be granted strength and generosity for the task of bringing about the "development of the whole man and of all men. Translation difficulties caused further delays in publication. It was reported that the translation hold was related to one of the major languages of China. Vatican Secretary of State Tarcisio Bertone said that the encyclical would be released sometime in the Fall of In December , a release was announced for 19 March These third and fourth delays were reported by Vatican officials to be due to the necessity for further reflection upon the global economic concerns of late and early Regarding this delay, much attention was given to a essay presented in Rome by Benedict then Josef cardinal Ratzinger at a symposium on "Church and Economy in Dialogue.
Speaking on social values and the common good, Ratzinger had predicted greed and corruption in economic polices would inject a fundamental instability into the global economic system. On February 1, it was announced that the encyclical would be released sometime in April Giampaolo Crepaldi, president of the Osservatorio Internazionale: sulla dottrina sociale della Chiesa, wrote an article entitled "Awaiting the New Encyclical of Benedict XVI: What does it mean to say the social doctrine of the Church is timely?
That, however, is not the way it is, for the simple reason that a social encyclical is not a sociological investigation. It therefore becomes clear that the "timeliness" of SDC stems not only from the new facts humanity has to deal with, but from the Gospel itself, which, insofar as Word incarnate, is always new. New facts and developments in history can act as a stimulus for a re-reading of everlasting truth, because everlasting truth is essentially open to such an endeavor.
Were this not true, each encyclical would speak only to the men and women of its time. Christ is ever timely, and let us not forget that the social doctrine of the Church is "announcement of Christ". Peter and Paul.
On May 28, , an unnamed Vatican official is reported to have said that  Pope Benedict XVI has completed his long-awaited encyclical on social issues and the text is now being translated into several languages, according to a Vatican official. The new document — Caritas in Veritate "Love in truth" — is about pages long, the official said. On the day of the actual release, July 27, , the Financial Times reported the final publication had been delayed to coincide with the G8 summit in Italy  Reception and impact A view of the mountains by Lorenzago, where Benedict first drafted the encyclical while on holiday at his private retreat.
The Financial Times reported that the encyclical helped influence discussion at the July G8 Summit in Italy , as the Vatican had planned. Secularists in Italy did not appreciate intervention by the Pope in worldly affairs.
Tina Beatti praised the encyclical for its insightful comments on the economic crises. But she went on to suggest the Catholic idealisation of sexuality hinted at in the encyclical may be part of the cause of child abuse scandals that have recently rocked Ireland.
These are startling omissions.
Caritas in Veritate
Lettre encyclique Caritas in veritate