INDOLENCE OF THE FILIPINO BY JOSE RIZAL PDF

He looks at the behavior typically associated with the predisposition to indolence, and proceeds to analyze the context in which it is bred. We all know about the underdeveloped state in which our educational system languishes. And yet we have only focused on the impoverished state of existing facilities and the miserable test scores of our pupils. We have not even begun to look at the kind of human beings our schools are producing, which is what bothered Rizal most.

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He looks at the behavior typically associated with the predisposition to indolence, and proceeds to analyze the context in which it is bred. We all know about the underdeveloped state in which our educational system languishes. And yet we have only focused on the impoverished state of existing facilities and the miserable test scores of our pupils. We have not even begun to look at the kind of human beings our schools are producing, which is what bothered Rizal most.

Stagnation inevitably results from this, and as he who devotes himself to copying fails to develop his inherent qualities, he naturally becomes sterile; hence decadence. A man in the Philippines is only an individual; he is not a member of a nation. Like the claim of indolence, however, this supposed unruliness is used to explain many problems and justify the quest for dictatorial rule.

It would not be enough to deny this lack of discipline, for indeed anyone can point to everyday manifestations of this annoying trait.

Our chaotic city traffic and the countless remedial measures it provokes appear to be its most palpable expression. Every failed treatment only seems to highlight the terminal nature of the malady.

Why do Filipinos not follow rules? Why do they not fall in line and wait for their turn? Why do they turn to influential persons or patrons to obtain access to public services and institutions? There are two basic reasons, I believe. The first is ignorance, and the second is distrust of the system. In the absence of such learning, people will improvise or stick to habit. But the more important reason for lack of discipline is distrust of the system. It is the belief that following the rules gets you nowhere.

If you fall in line, you may wait forever; others will find a way to get ahead of everyone. The idea is to devise your own trick, or to find a fixer you can pay or a powerful person whose influence you can tap in order to quickly get what you want.

Looking at our social reality today, one finds that this way of thinking is not too far off the mark. Our system of rules does provide discretionary powers to some people -- powers essential to a social order based on large gaps in wealth and privilege, and on layers of dependence and patronage.

In such a system, corruption is only the other face of patronage, a vital ingredient in the highly unequal society we have. This kind of society is becoming obsolete in the modern world. To prolong its life, pre-modern elites who run government are resorting to authoritarianism, while the citizens who cannot stand living in it are fleeing.

But, because we too are evolving as a society, there is hope. Education and migration are releasing many Filipinos from ignorance and bondage.

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The Indolence of the Filipino

Jose Rizal, to explain the alleged idleness of his people during the Spanish colonization. Rizal pointed out that long before the coming of the Spaniards, the Filipinos were industrious and hardworking. The Spanish reign brought about a decline in economic activities because of certain causes: First, the establishment of the Galleon Trade cut off all previous associations of the Philippines with other countries in Asia and the Middle East. As a result, business was only conducted with Spain through Mexico. Because of this, the small businesses and handicraft industries that flourished during the pre-Spanish period gradually disappeared. Because of the wars between Spain and other countries in Europe as well as the Muslims in Mindanao, the Filipinos were compelled to work in shipyards, roads, and other public works, abandoning agriculture, industry, and commerce.

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