Shambrook, Ph. RTS, Inc. They are best considered as a novel state of matter. They are made by the sequential processing of amorphous polar dielectric elastomers.
|Published (Last):||7 February 2013|
|PDF File Size:||19.27 Mb|
|ePub File Size:||4.84 Mb|
|Price:||Free* [*Free Regsitration Required]|
Published on Apr 17, Abstract Superconductivity is the phenomenon in which a material losses all its electrical resistance and allowing electric current to flow without dissipation or loss of energy.
The atoms in materials vibrate due to thermal energy contained in the materials: the higher the temperature, the more the atoms vibrate. If an ordinary conductor were to be cooled to a temperature of absolute zero, atomic vibrations would cease, electrons would flow without obstruction, and electrical resistance would fall to zero. A temperature of absolute zero cannot be achieved in practice, but some materials exhibit superconducting characteristics at higher temperatures.
In , the Dutch physicist Heike Kamerlingh Onnes discovered superconductivity in mercury at a temperature of approximately 4 K o C. Many other superconducting metals and alloys were subsequently discovered but, until , the highest temperature at which superconducting properties were achieved was around 23 K o C with the niobium-germanium alloy Nb3Ge In George Bednorz and Alex Muller discovered a metal oxide that exhibited superconductivity at the relatively high temperature of 30 K o C.
This led to the discovery of ceramic oxides that super conduct at even higher temperatures. In , and oxide of thallium, calcium, barium and copper Ti2Ca2Ba2Cu3O10 displayed superconductivity at K o C , and, in a family based on copper oxide and mercury attained superconductivity at K o C. These "high-temperature" superconductors are all the more noteworthy because ceramics are usually extremely good insulators.
Like ceramics, most organic compounds are strong insulators; however, some organic materials known as organic synthetic metals do display both conductivity and superconductivity. Although this is well below the temperatures achieved for ceramic oxides, organic superconductors are considered to have great potential for the future. New superconducting materials are being discovered on a regular basis, and the search is on for room temperature superconductors, which, if discovered, are expected to revolutionize electronics.
Room temperature superconductors ultraconductors are being developed for commercial applications by Room Temperature Superconductors Inc. Ultraconductors are the result of more than 16 years of scientific research ,independent laboratory testing and eight years of engineering development.
From an engineering perspective, ultraconductors are a fundamentally new and enabling technology. These materials are claimed to conduct electricity at least , times better than gold, silver or copper.
The materials exhibit a characteristic set of properties including conductivity and current carrying capacity equivalent to superconductors, but without the need for cryogenic support. This transition resembles a formal insulator to conductor I-C transition. The base polymers used are certain viscous polar elastomers, obtained by polymerization in the laboratory or as purchased from industrial suppliers.
Seven chemically distinct polymers have been demonstrated to date. The transition is induced by mild ionization of the films by various methods. It occurs in connection with a relatively slow hours to days, depending upon the volume electronic phase separation of the materials. The separation produces two components, a a near-perfect dielectric bulk phase and b a highly localized phase having mean charge concentration about cm-3 or more.
The charge-rich phase of the polymer is highly organized and durable, and exhibits a characteristic set of anomalous properties. This feature is considered to indicate collective quantum mechanical behavior. Subsequently, discrete microscopic structures - the localized phase - can be observed and imaged for example, by AFM and EFM as randomly distributed in the bulk material.
A proportion of these structures, typically 1 - 2 microns diameter, extends from substrate to film surface, and can also be electrically contacted. IR spectroscopy of the post-transition films shows them to be chemically unchanged from the base polymer; that is, the new structures are composed of the same molecular material as the bulk, which remains insulating.
Properties of Ultraconductors Ultraconductors are the electrical conductors which have certain properties similar to present day superconductors. They are best considered as a novel state of matter. They are made by the sequential processing of amorphous polar dielectric elastomers. Additional properties established by experimental measurements include: the absence of measurable heat generation under high current; thermal versus electrical conductivity orders of magnitude in violation of the Wiedemann-Franz law; a jump-like transition to a resistive state at a critical current; a nearly zero Seebeck coefficient over the temperature range 87 - K; no measurable resistance when Ultraconductor tm films are placed between superconducting tin electrodes at cryogenic temperatures.
The Ultraconductor properties are measured in discrete macromolecular structures which form over time after the processing. RTS was founded in to develop the Ultraconductor tm technology, following 16 years of research by a scientific team at the Polymer Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, led by Dr. Leonid Grigorov, Ph. There have been numerous papers in peer-reviewed literature, 4 contracts from the U.
Another patent is pending and a fourth now is being completed. To date 7 chemically distinct polymers have been used to create Ultraconductors tm , including olefin, acrylate, urethane and silicone based plastics. The total list of candidate polymers suited to the process is believed to number in the hundreds. In films, these channels can be observed by several methods, including phase contrast optical microscope, Atomic Force Microscope AFM , magnetic balance, and simple electric contact.
The channel structures can be moved and manipulated in the polymer. Ultraconductor tm films may be prepared on metal, glass, or semiconductor substrates. The polymer is initially viscose during processing. For practical application the channels may be "locked" in the polymer, by cross linking, or glass transition. A physics model of the conducting structures, which fits well with the experimental measurements, and also a published theory, have been developed.
The next step in material development is to increase the percentage or "concentration" of conducting material. This will lead to films with a larger number of conducting points needed for interposers and other applications and to wire. Wire is essentially extending a channel to indefinite length, and the technique has been demonstrated in principle. Connecting to these conducting structures is done with a metal electrode, and when two channels are brought together they connect.
From an engineering point of view, we expect the polymer to replace copper wire and HTS in many applications. It will be considerably lighter than copper, and have less electric resistance. Next More Seminar Topics: Are you interested in this topic. Then mail to us immediately to get the full report.
New law for superconductors
Ultraconductus: Innovative Electrical Conductors Creating Revolutionary Electrical Conductors If technology were music, then electricity would be one of its greatest symphonies. From to , annual worldwide electrical power production and consumption increased more than fold, from slightly less than 1, billion kilowatt-hours to 14, billion kilowatt-hours. The world relies on conductors made primarily of copper and aluminum for transmitting and carrying electrical power, fabricating motors and generators, and myriad other applications. Such conductors, because they have nonzero small but not exactly zero electrical resistance, dissipate or lose a small portion of the power they transport. As global energy consumption increases, power transmission and subsequently losses increase, costing consumers more and more money each year. What type of material would be ideal as an electrical conductor? The obvious answer is something with zero electrical resistance—a superconductor.
Pentagon Buys 'Perpetual Motion'
More Than Superconductors? So what is this thing? I found two threads to pull, and they were different. One led to an organic approach — which would sound pretty danged interesting — but it is not being actively pursued at the moment. One Dr. James Maxwell was leading a project to improve conductance beyond what metal alloys could provide.
Published on Apr 17, Abstract Superconductivity is the phenomenon in which a material losses all its electrical resistance and allowing electric current to flow without dissipation or loss of energy. The atoms in materials vibrate due to thermal energy contained in the materials: the higher the temperature, the more the atoms vibrate. If an ordinary conductor were to be cooled to a temperature of absolute zero, atomic vibrations would cease, electrons would flow without obstruction, and electrical resistance would fall to zero. A temperature of absolute zero cannot be achieved in practice, but some materials exhibit superconducting characteristics at higher temperatures. In , the Dutch physicist Heike Kamerlingh Onnes discovered superconductivity in mercury at a temperature of approximately 4 K o C.
JPS Labs Ultraconductor Speaker Cables
Learn how and when to remove this template message Most of the physical properties of superconductors vary from material to material, such as the heat capacity and the critical temperature, critical field, and critical current density at which superconductivity is destroyed. On the other hand, there is a class of properties that are independent of the underlying material. For instance, all superconductors have exactly zero resistivity to low applied currents when there is no magnetic field present or if the applied field does not exceed a critical value. The existence of these "universal" properties implies that superconductivity is a thermodynamic phase , and thus possesses certain distinguishing properties which are largely independent of microscopic details. Both the massive and slim cables are rated for 12, A. The simplest method to measure the electrical resistance of a sample of some material is to place it in an electrical circuit in series with a current source I and measure the resulting voltage V across the sample. If the voltage is zero, this means that the resistance is zero.