Grotaxe Learn in a quick and easy way to program microcontroller using many practical examples we have provided for you. Designed as a main or supplementary text for courses on microprocessors or microcontrollers. In the appendices you will find detailed assembler instructions with examples, glossary and much more. Book Description Learn in a quick and easy way to program microcontroller using many practical examples we have provided for microcontrrollers. Despite its relative old age, is still the most commonly used microcontroller at present.

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PIC Microcontrollers by Milan Verle Posted by: Admin Posted date: February 20, In: E-Books , Tutorials comment : 1 Tags: e-book , free Introduction to the World of microcontrollers The situation we find ourselves today in the field of microcontrollers had its beginnings in the development of technology of integrated circuits.

This development has enabled us to store hundreds of thousands of transistors into one chip. That was a precondition for the manufacture of microprocessors. Further increasing of package density resulted in creating an integrated circuit which contained both processor and peripherals. That is how the first chip containing a microcomputer later known as a microcontroller has developed.

This is how it all got started… In the year , a team of Japanese engineers from BUSICOM came to the USA with a request that a few integrated circuits for calculators were to be designed according to their projects.

Having experience working with a computer, the PDP8, he came up with an idea to suggest fundamentally different solutions instead of the suggested design.

This solution presumed that the operation of integrated circuit was to be determined by the program stored in the circuit itself. It meant that configuration would be simpler, but it would require far more memory than the project proposed by Japanese engineers. A major help with turning an idea into a ready-to-use product was Federico Faggin.

Nine months after hiring him, Intel succeeded in developing such a product from its original concept. In Intel obtained the right to sell this integrated circuit. During that year, a microprocessor called the appeared on the market. That was the first 4-bit microprocessor with the speed of operations per second. Not long after that, an American company CTC requested from Intel and Texas Instruments to manufacture an 8-bit microprocessor to be applied in terminals.

Even though CTC gave up this project, Intel and Texas Instruments kept working on the microprocessor and in April the first 8-bit microprocessor called the appeared on the market. It was able to address 16Kb of memory, had 45 instructions and the speed of operations per second. Intel kept on developing it and in April it launched an 8-bit processor called the Another American company called Motorola, quickly realized what was going on, so they launched 8-bit microprocessor Their chief constructor was Chuck Peddle.

Apart from the processor itself, Motorola was the first company that also manufactured other peripherals such as the and At that time many companies recognized the greater importance of microprocessors and began their own development.

Because of that, MOS Technology gave up further manufacture of the , but kept manufacturing the It was the 8-bit microprocessor with 56 instructions and ability to directly address 64Kb of memory.

In the year of its prosperity , this processor was being sold at a rate of 15 million processors per year! Other companies did not want to give up either. Frederico Faggin left Intel and started his own company Zilog Inc.

In Zilog announced the Z When designing this microprocessor Faggin made a crucial decision. The had already been developed and he realized that many would remain loyal to that processor because of the great expenditures which rewriting of all the programs would result in.

Accordingly he decided that a new processor had to be compatible with the , i. Apart from that, many other features have been added so that the Z80 was the most powerful microprocessor at that time. It was able to directly address 64Kb of memory, had instructions, a large number of registers, a built-in option for refreshing dynamic RAM memory, a single power supply, greater operating speed etc. The Z80 was a great success and everybody replaced the by the Z Certainly the Z80 was commercially the most successful 8-bit microprocessor at that time.

In Intel came up with an upgraded version of the 8-bit microprocessor called the However, the Z80 was so much better that Intel lost the battle. There were no such great improvements which could make manufacturers to change their mind, so the and Z80 along with the remained chief representatives of the 8-bit microprocessors of that time. Microcontroller versus Microprocessor A microcontroller differs from a microprocessor in many ways.

The first and most important difference is its functionality. In order that the microprocessor may be used, other components such as memory must be added to it.

Even though the microprocessors are considered to be powerful computing machines, their weak point is that they are not adjusted to communicating to peripheral equipment. Simply, In order to communicate with peripheral environment, the microprocessor must use specialized circuits added as external chips. In short microprocessors are the pure heart of the computers.

This is how it was in the beginning and remains the same today. No other specialized external components are needed for its application because all necessary circuits which otherwise belong to peripherals are already built into it. It saves the time and space needed to design a device.

That means that you still belong to the later group. If you want to change your status read the following text describing briefly some of the basic concepts used further in this book just to be sure we are on the same page.

World of Numbers Mathematics is such a good science! Everything is so logical and simple as that. The whole universe can be described with ten digits only. But, does it really have to be like that? Do we need exactly ten digits? Of course not, it is only a matter of habit. Remember the lessons from the school. For example, what does the number mean: four units, six tens and seven hundreds. Could it be described in a bit more complicated way? Even more complicated? Could this number look a bit more scientific?

What does it actually mean? Why do we use exactly these numbers: , and ? Why is it always about the number 10? That is because we use ten different digits 0, 1, 2, … 8, 9. In other words, because we use base number system, i. Or if we would not know to determine whether something is 3 or 5 times greater than something else?

Or if we would be restricted when comparing two sizes, i. Nothing special would happen, we would keep on using numbers in the same way, but they would look a bit different. For example: How many pages of a book does the number include?

In order to learn that, follow the same logic like in the previous example, but in reverse order. Bear in mind that all this is about mathematics with only two digits- 0 and 1, i. The only difference is in the number of digits necessary for writing some number. One digit 2 is used to write the number 2 in decimal system, whereas two digits 1 and 0 are used to write that number in binary system.

Do you now agree that there are 10 groups of people? Welcome to the world of binary arithmetic! Do you have any idea where it is used? Excepting strictly controlled laboratory conditions, the most complicated electronic circuits cannot accurately determine the difference between two sizes two voltage values, for example if they are too small lower than several volts. Did anybody say batteries?

A far simpler solution is the use of binary logic where 0 indicates that there is no voltage and 1 indicates that there is voltage. It is called logic zero 0 and logic one 1 which electronics perfectly conforms with and easily performs all those endlessly complex mathematical operations.

It is electronics which in reality applies mathematics in which all numbers are represented by two digits only and in which it is only important to know whether there is voltage or not.

Of course, we are talking about digital electronics. Hexadecimal Number System At the very beginning of computer development it was realized that people had many difficulties in handling binary numbers. Because of this, a new numbering system had to be established. This time, a number system using 16 different digits. The first ten digits are the same as digits we are used to 0, 1, 2, 3,… 9 but there are six digits more. A hexadecimal number system consisting of digits: 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, A, B, C, D, E, F has been established.

What is the purpose of this seemingly bizarre combination? Just look how perfectly everything fits the story about binary numbers. It corresponds to the number 15 in decimal system.

That number is in hexadecimal system represented by only one digit F. It is the largest onedigit number in hexadecimal system. Do you see how skillfully it is used? The largest number written with eightdigits is at the same time the largest twodigit hexadecimal number.

Bear in mind that the computer uses 8-digit binary numbers. It consists of fourdigit binary numbers which represent the first ten digits 0, 1, 2, 3 … 8, 9. Even though four digits can give a total of 16 possible combinations, only the first ten are used. Therefore, it is very important to learn how to convert numbers from one numbering system to another, i.


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