IBN HAWQAL PDF

He spent the last 30 years of his life traveling to the remote parts of Asia and Africa and writing about what he saw. Ibn Hawqal introduces 10th century humour into his account of Sicily during the Kalbid-Fatimid dynasty. As a primary source his medieval geography tends to exaggeration and his depiction of the barbaric uncivilised Christians of Palermo, reflects the prevailing politics of his time. Yet his geographic accounts of his personal travels were relied upon, and found useful, by medieval Arab travellers. The chapters on Al-Andalus , in Muslim-held Spain , and particularly on Sicily , describe the richly cultivated area of Fraxinet La Garde-Freinet , and detail a number of regional innovations practiced by Muslim farmers and fishermen.

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The geographer and traveller Ibn Hawqal in the 9th century described it as a flourishing commercial centre. Member feedback about Circesium: These authorities do not, however, agree on the geographical location of the White Aethiopians.

He also incorporated complete chapters on the Arabian Peninsula, the Gulf, Khuzistan, Kirman, and Sind, to which he made a few additions. Member feedback about Azerbaijan Iran: It is further linked to the city of Mashhad in neighboring Iran through the border town of Islam Qala, and to Mary in Turkmenistan to the north through hasqal border town of Torghundi. Contemporary use of the term refers to the following areas: For an English version, see here. Goldfields are indicated by light brown shading: Description This is the second edition by J.

Ibn Hawqal A map by Estakhri from the text Al-aqalim. In his work, Ibn Hawqal did not restrict himself to geographical data but discussed major cities, people, their customs, and everything interesting about life in the regions he discussed.

He also described countries and peoples bordering the Islamic world. Physicians of medieval Islam Revolvy Brain revolvybrain. Maqamat of al-Hariri Illustration, It was mostly known as the centre and capital of Bactria or Tokharistan. Azerbaijani wine is produced in several regions throughout Azerbaijan. The following is a non-exhaustive list of Muslim geographers.

At the census, its population was 73, in 19, families. Member feedback about Ahmad of Shirvan: This is particularly true of the notes on economic matters, which form a complete break with convention. The main productions were cotton and cereals. He is one of the earliest known historical figures to self-identify as a Palestinian during his travels. Goldfields are indicated by light brown shading. Arab scholars at an Abbasid library in Baghdad. Most Related.

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Brockelmann S 1, ; EI s. Ibn Hawkal 1. Kramers, Opus geographicum auctore Ibn Hawqal Liber imaginis terrae Arabic , Leiden ; French transl. A posthumous abridged redaction with additions by the writer , A. The greatest empires on earth are four in number. The most prosperous and the richest in goods, where the conduct of the government, the preservation of wealth and abundance of revenues are also the best, is

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Ibn Hawqal Explained

Ibn Hawqal was clearly more than an editor; he was a traveler who spent much of his time writing about the areas and things he had seen. He spent the last 30 years of his life traveling to remote parts of Asia and Africa. One of the things he noticed was that there were large numbers of people living in areas that the Greeks , working from logic rather than experience, said must be uninhabitable. His descriptions were, at the time, considered to be accurate and very helpful to travellers.

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Ibn Hawqal

He spent the last 30 years of his life traveling to the remote parts of Asia and Africa and writing about what he saw. Ibn Hawqal introduces 10th century humour into his account of Sicily during the Kalbid-Fatimid dynasty. As a primary source his medieval geography tends to exaggeration and his depiction of the barbaric uncivilised Christians of Palermo, reflects the prevailing politics of his time. Yet his geographic accounts of his personal travels were relied upon, and found useful, by medieval Arab travellers.

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