In the following bull, Pope Alexander VI decrees that all newly discovered lands west of an imaginary line of longitude running through the eastern part of present-day Brazil belonged to Spain, and everything east to Portugal. The text was originally written in Latin and takes its name, Inter caetera from the opening phrase "Among other". This English translation was published in Next Transcription from Original Alexander, bishop, servant of the servants of God, to the illustrious sovereigns, our very dear son in Christ, Ferdinand, king, and our very dear daughter in Christ, Isabella, queen of Castile, Leon, Aragon, and Granada, health and apostolic benediction.

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The treaty had been ratified with the papal bull Aeterni regis , which confirmed previous bulls of Dum diversas , Romanus Pontifex , and Inter caetera , [2] recognizing Portuguese territorial claims along the West African coast. With word that King John was preparing a fleet to sail to the west, the King and Queen of Spain initiated diplomatic discussions over the rights to possess and govern the newly found lands.

Columbus was still in Lisbon when he sent a report of his success to the Spanish monarchs. They were at Barcelona, in close touch with Rome. The camera apostolica became almost an extension of the Spanish Court, which secured a rapid succession of bulls virtually liquidating Portuguese claims. The third superseded the first two. A final edict, Dudum siquidem of 26 September , supplemented the Inter caetera. Both parties found this too vague. Diffie notes that it has been suggested that this change may have been prompted by the Portuguese ambassador.

In relation to other states the agreement was legally ineffective res inter alios acta. The bull was silent regarding whether lands to the east of the line would belong to Portugal, which had only recently reached the southern tip of Africa and had not yet reached India An important if initially unintended effect of the combination of this papal bull and the Treaty of Tordesillas was that nearly all the Pacific Ocean and the west coast of North America were given to Spain.

King John II naturally declined to enter into a hopeless competition at Rome, and simply ignored the bulls, thus neither admitting their authority nor defying the Church. A map of the Spanish red and Portuguese Empires blue in the period of their personal union — Even within Spain influential voices, such as Francisco de Vitoria , had denounced the validity of the Inter caetera.

While Spain never gave up its claims based on papal bulls, neither did the Spanish crown seek papal sanctions over the Pacific Ocean line of demarcation. Rather, Spain negotiated directly with Portugal. Once on the island of Hispaniola, Buil saw the effects of the conquistadors and quarreled with Columbus over the harsh treatment of colonists and Indians. Seeing that the situation for evangelization and catechizing was impossible, Buil left for Spain, defeated, within six months on 3 December Protests by indigenous groups[ edit ] In the 21st century, various groups representing indigenous peoples of the Americas have organised protests and raised petitions seeking the repeal of the papal bull Inter caetera, and to remind Catholic leaders of the record of conquest, disease and slavery in the Americas, sometimes justified in the name of Christianity, which they say has a devastating effect on their cultures today.


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